For analytic purposes and user accessibility, we have categorized M&E frameworks according to their underlying assumptions in tracking and understanding the nature of change. In our review, seven main categories emerged to shape the organization of this Compendium:


1. Causal Frameworks aim to demonstrate the causal and logical chains that lead to program impact.

2. Contribution Frameworks attempt to track the multiple and variable forces involved in producing change and highlight the contribution of change agents to the social change process and intended outcomes. 

3. Gender Analysis Frameworks may draw from causal and contribution frameworks, but due to their importance to feminist work are included as a separate category.

4. Systems Thinking and Complexity Frameworks describe unique approaches to measuring change from a complex and systems theory approach, looking at the interconnections and systems at work in a given context. 

5. Hybrid Frameworks integrate multiple tools and approaches along with local innovations to more effectively capture changes in women’s rights and empowerment work.

6. Miscellaneous Tools and Indicators include tools useful for tracking changes in gender at various levels, including gender mainstreaming, audits, and policy reforms that do not necessarily fit in the categories above. In addition, this section includes collections of indicators on women’s empowerment, violence against women, and other gender issues.

7. General Resources on Methods provides an overview of basic M&E terminology and issues.